Irish Lesson 99

Practice with fourth-declension nouns

Although the fourth declension does not include as many nouns as the first declension, its nouns are ones frequently heard and seen. This lesson gives you some of them.

In most of the list, only the basic singular and plural forms are offered. For ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha (AN-im-OH-kil IR-inshk-nahk*-uh), or masculine nouns, remember that the genitive or possessive case has an aspirated first consonant (except for "d" and "t," which are unchanged, and "s," whose sound is replaced by "t," prefixed to the word).

Examples of the exceptions are: Lá an Dreoilín, Wren Day; blas an tae, taste of the tea; i lár an tseomra (i law*r uh TOHM-ruh), in the middle of the room.

 

Ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha

caipín, (KAH-peen), an caipín, na caipíní; cap, etc.

fáinne (FAW*N-ye), na fáinní (FAW*N-yee); ring, the rings.

madra (MAH-druh), na madraí (MAH-dree); dog, the dogs.

siopa (SHOHP-uh), na siopaí; store, the stores.

ainm (AN-im), an t-ainm, an ainm, na hainmneacha (HAN-im-NAHK*-uh); name, the name, of the name, the names.

uisce (ISH-ke), na huiscí; water, the waters.

mála (MAW*-luh), na málaí; bag, the bags.

garáiste (guh-RAW*SH-te), na garáistí; garage, the garages.

 

geata (GA-tuh), na geataí; gate, the gates.

pláta (PLAW*-tuh), na plátaí; plate, the plates.

céirnín (kay*r-NEEN), na céirníní; record, the records (for music).

báisín (baw*-SHEEN), na báisíní; basin, the basins.

píosa (PEES-uh), na píosaí; piece, the pieces.

bóna (BOH-nuh), na bónaí; collar, the collars.

dáta (DAW*-tuh), na dátaí; date, the dates (calendar term).

stoca (STOHK-uh), na stocaí; stocking, the stockings.

 

seomra (SHOHM-ruh), na seomraí; room, the rooms.

damhsa (DOU-suh), na damhsaí; dance, the dances.

rince (RINK-e), na rincí; dance, the dances.

císte (KEESH-te), na cístí; cake, the cakes.

péire (PAY*R-e), na péirí; pair, the pairs.

sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), an sneachta, na tsneachta (TNAHK*-tuh), (no plural); snow, the snow, of the snow.

tae, an tae, an tae, (no plural); tea, the tea, of the tea.

 

béile (BAY*L-uh), na béilí; meal, the meals.

ceapaire (KYAP-uh-re), na ceapairí; sandwich, the sandwiches.

staighre (STEYE-re), an staighre, an staighre, na staighrí; stair, the stair, of the stair, the stairs. The singular form is generally employed. In the genitive, the "t" sound does not replace the "s", because the combination of "tst" could not be pronounced easily.

bríste (BREESH-te), na brístí; trousers, the trousers. The singular form means a pair of trousers in English.

 

caife (KAH-fe), (no plural); coffee.

duine (DIN-e), na daoine (DEEN-e); person, the person or people.

contae (KOHN-tay*), na contaetha (KOHN-tay*-huh); county, the counties.

rúnaí (ROON-hee), na rúnaithe (ROON-i-he); secretary, the secretaries.

rothaí (ROH-hee), na rothaithe (ROH-hi-he); cyclist, the cyclists.

tiománaí (ti-MAW*-nee), na tiománaithe (ti-MAW*-ni-he); driver, the drivers.

 

Ainmfhocail bhaininscneacha (feminine nouns)

In these, the genitive or possessive case is preceded by "na" for "the", and an "h" is prefixed to a noun beginning with a vowel in the genitive case.

líne (LEEN-uh), an líne, na líne, na línte; line, the line, of the line, the lines.

féile (FAY*-le), fhéile (AY*-le), na féile, na féiltí; feastday, the feastday, of the feastday, the feastdays.

éide (AY*-de), na héidí; uniform, the uniforms.

tine (TIN-e), na tinte; fire, the fires (in fireplace or hearth).

táille (TAW*-il-ye), na táillí; fee, toll, the fees, the tolls.

timpiste (TIM-pish-te), na timpistí; accident, the accidents.

 

rogha (ROU-uh), na roghanna (ROU-uh-nuh); choice, the choices.

fírinne (FEER-in-ye), na fírinní (FEER-in-yee); truth, the truths.

eagla (AH-gluh), no plural); fear.

beatha (BA-huh), na beathaí (BA-hee); life.

saoire (SEE-i-re), an tsaoire (TEE-i-re), na saoire, (no plural); vacation, the vacation, of the vacation.

farraige (FAH-rig-e), na farraigí; sea, the seas.

teanga (TANG-uh), na teangacha (TANG-uh-huh); tongue, the tongues, also language, the languages.

coinne (KIN-ye), na coinní; appointment, the appointment.

 

Cuir Gaeilge orthu seo:

The ring's color. Washing their dogs. Drinking the water. Above the other bag. Throwing the cap in the air. Washing his dog. Writing the names. Next to the garage. Her ring's color. The storekeeper (man of the store). A storekeeper.

Above the line. Next to the fire. Paying his fees. Making my choice. After that feastday. During their vacation. The day of my appointment. Making those appointments. Buying the uniform. Buying her uniform.

Key: dath an fháinne. Ag ní a madraí. Ag ól an uisce. Os cionn an mhála eile. Ag caitheamh an chaipín san aer. Ag ní a mhadra. Ag scríobh na nainmneacha. In aice an gháraiste. Dath a fáinne. Fear an tsiopa (TYOH-puh), Fear siopa.

Os cionn na líne. In aice na tine. Ag íoc a bháillí. Ag déanamh mo rogha. Tar éis an fhéile sin. Le linn a saoire. Lá mo choinne. Ag déanamh na gcoinní sin. Ag ceannach a éide. Ag ceannach a héide.