Irish Lesson 120

Graiméar

The present subjunctive for the second conjugation has all forms except two ending in "__ í". An example:

go gceannaí (goh GAN-ee) mé, I hope that I buy

go gceannaí tú, I hope that you buy

go gceannaí sé, sí; I hope that he, she buys

go gceannaímid, I hope that we buy

go gceannaí sibh, I hope that you-all buy

go gceannaí siad, I hope that they buy

go gceannaítear (goh GAN-ee-tuhr) é, I hope that it is bought

The negative forms begin with: nár cheannaí (naw*r HYAN-ee) mé, I hope that I don't buy; the final one is: nár cheannaítear é.

 

There is a small group of second-conjugation verbs, ending in -il, -in, -is, and -ir that contract slightly (as they do in other tenses) in the modh foshuiteach or subjunctive. The letter "i" drops out, as in these examples.

Oscail, open

 

go n-osclaí mé, may I open

go n-osclaímid (goh NOHSK-lee-mid), may we open

go n-osclaítear (goh NOHSK-lee-tuhr) é, may it be opened

nár osclaí mé, may I not open

nár osclaímid, may we not open

nár osclaítear é, may it not be opened

 

Cosain (KUH-sin), defend

go gcosnaí (goh GUHS-nee) mé, I hope that I defend

go gcosnaímid, I hope that we defend

go gcosnaítear é, I hope that it is defended

nár chosnaí (naw*r K*UHS-nee) mé, I hope that I don't defend

nár chosnaímid, I hope that we don't defend

nár chosnaítear é, I hope that it is not defended

 

Imir, play

go n-imrí mé, may I play

go n-imrímid (goh NIM-ree-mid), may we play

go n-imrítear (goh NIM-ree-tuhr) é, may it be played

nár imrí mé, may I not play

nár imrímid, may we not play

nár imrítear, may it not be played

 

Inis (IN-ish), tell, relate

go n-insí mé, may I tell

go n-insímid, may we tell

go n-insítear é, may it be told

nár insí mé, may I not tell

nár insímid, may we not tell

nár insítear é, may it not be told

 

An modh foshuiteach le "tá"

With this verb, the word "raibh" (rev) is the main one for the present subjunctive:

go raibh mé, I hope that I am, may I be

go raibh tú, go raibh sé, go raibh sí

go rabhaimid (goh ROU-uh-mid), I hope that we are, may we be

go raibh sibh, go raibh siad

go rabhthar (ROU-huhr), I hope that it is ___

ná raibh mé (naw* rev), I hope that I am not, may I not be

ná raibh tú, ná raibh sé, ná raibh sí

ná rabhaimid, I hope that we are not, may we not be

ná raibh sibh, ná raibh siad

ná rabhthar (naw* ROU-huhr), I hope that it is not ___

 

Before practice to illustrate how this modh foshuiteach serves in communicating ideas, here are some words for expressing wishes:

 

Verbs

fóir (FOH-ir), ag fóirithint (uh FOH-ri-hint), fóirthe (FOH-ir-he), fóireann sé, fóirfidh sé; save, saving, saved, he saves, he will save (usually with "ar")

agair (AH-gir), ag agairt, agartha (AH-gahr-huh), agraíonn sé, agróidh sé; avenge or take retribution for, avenging, avenged, he avenges, he will avenge (with "ar" for "on")

beannaigh (BAN-ee), ag beannú (uh BAN-oo), beannaithe (BAN-uh-he), beannaíonn sé, beannóidh sé; bless or greet, blessing, blessed, he blesses, he will bless ( with "do")

maire (MAH-re), ag maireachtáil (uh MAHR-ahk*-taw*-il), martha (MAHR-huh), maireann sé, mairfidh sé; live, living, lived, he lives, he will live

éalaigh (AY*-lee), ag éalú (eg AY*-loo), éalaithe (AY*-luh-he), éalaíonn sé, éalóidh sé; escape, escaping, escaped, he escapes, he will escape

 

Nouns

eilifint (EL-i-fint), an eilifint, na heilifinte, na heilfintí; elephant, the elephant, of the elephant, the elephants

gluaisteán (GLOOSH-tyaw*n), an gluaisteán, an ghluaisteáin, na gluaisteán; automobile, the auto, of the auto, the autos

trócaire, an trócaire, na trócaire; mercy, the mercy, of the mercy

 

Comhrá

Cruinníonn ár gcairde chun rudaí tabhachtacha a phlé

 

Deasún: Go mbeannaí Dia dhuit, a Bhríd.

Bríd: Go mbeannaí Dia is Muire dhuit, a Dheasúin.

Pól: Cheannaigh mo bheann gúna nua, a Mháire.

Máire: Go maire sí agus go gcaithe sí é.

Séamas: Thiomáin mé mo ghluaisteán trasna do chlóis, a Nóra.

Nóra: Go léime eilifint éalaithe in airde ar do ghluaisteán, a Shéamais.

Pádraig: Anois, tá cara liom i bpriosún (i bri-SOON), a Eibhlín.

Eibhlín: Go n-éalaí sé go luath.

Seán: Chaill (k*eyel) mé d'fháinne, a Bhláthnaid.

Bláthnaid: Go bhfóire Dia ort, a Sheáin.

Seoirse (SHOHR-she): Mháraigh mo mhac do chat, a Chaitlín.

Caitlín: Nár agraí Dia air é.

Key:

Our friends gather to discuss important things.

Deasún: May God bless you (Hello), Bríd. Bríd: Hello, Deasún.

Pól; My wife bought a new dress, Mary. Mary: May she live and wear it.

Séamas: I drove my car across your yard, Nóra. Nóra: May an escaped elephant jump up on your car, Séamas.

Pádraig: Now, a friend of mine is in prison, Eibhlín. Eibhlin: I hope he escapes soon.

Seán: I lost your ring, Bláthnaid. Bláthnaid: May God help you, Seán.

Seoirse: My son killed your cat, Cáitlín. Cáitlín: I hope that God doesn't punish him for it.